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Sitagliptin (Molecule of the Month for May 2017)

Januvia



Sitagliptin is an oral antihyperglycemic (antidiabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class. This enzyme-inhibiting drug is used either alone or in combination with other oral antihyperglycemic agents (such as metformin or a thiazolidinedione) for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It was developed, and is marketed, by Merck & Co.

Sitagliptin works to competitively inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). This enzyme breaks down the incretins GLP-1 and GIP, gastrointestinal hormones released in response to a meal. By preventing GLP-1 and GIP inactivation, they are able to increase the secretion of insulin and suppress the release of glucagon by the alpha cells of the pancreas. This drives blood glucose levels towards normal. As the blood glucose level approaches normal, the amounts of insulin released and glucagon suppressed diminishes, thus tending to prevent an "overshoot" and subsequent low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) which is seen with some other oral hypoglycemic agents.

Sitagliptin has been shown to lower HbA1c level by about 0.7% points versus placebo. It is slightly less effective than metformin when used as a monotherapy. It does not cause weight gain and has less hypoglycemia compared to sulfonylureas. Sitagliptin is recommended as a second line drug (in combination with other drugs) after the combination of diet/exercise and metformin fails.

Formal Chemical Name (IUPAC)
(R)-3-amino-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl)-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-1-one

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitagliptin

Picture of Sitagliptin 3D model

click on the picture of  Sitagliptin above to interact
with the 3D model of the
Sitagliptin structure
(this will open a new browser window)

Picture of Sitagliptin

C16H15F6N5O



Update by Karl Harrison
(Molecule of the Month for May 2017 )

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