Losartan (Molecule of the Month for July 2017)
Losartan is a medication mainly used to treat high blood pressure. Other uses include for diabetic kidney disease, heart failure, and left ventricular enlargement. It is taken by mouth. It may be used together with other blood pressure medication. Up to six weeks may be required for the full effects to occur.
As with all angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists, losartan is used to treatment hypertension. It may also delay progression of diabetic nephropathy and is associated with a positive clinical outcome in that regard. It is a suitable pharmacological agent for the reduction of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 hours) or proteinuria (>900 mg/24 hours).
Losartan is a selective, competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, reducing the end organ responses to angiotensin II. Losartan administration results in a decrease in total peripheral resistance (afterload) and cardiac venous return (preload). All of the physiological effects of angiotensin II, including release of aldosterone, are antagonized in the presence of losartan. Reduction in blood pressure occurs independently of the status of the renin-angiotensin system. As a result of losartan dosing, plasma renin activity increases due to removal of the angiotensin II feedback.
Formal Chemical Name (IUPAC)
Update by Karl Harrison
(Molecule of the Month for July 2017 )
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